EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT, TEMPERAMENT, &
|| (Fall 2010)
infants either seek proximity or contact or else greet the parent at a
distance with a smile or wave.
- Secure adults find it relatively easy to get close to
are comfortable depending on others and having others depend on them.
Secure adults don't often worry about being abandoned or about someone
getting too close to them.
infants avoid the parent.
- Avoidant adults are somewhat
uncomfortable being close to others; they find it difficult to trust
others completely, difficult to allow themselves to depend on others.
Avoidant adults are nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, love
partners want them to be more intimate than they feel comfortable being.
- Resistant / ambivalent
infants either passively or actively show hostility toward the
- Anxious / ambivalent
adults find that others are reluctant to get as close as they would
like. Anxious / ambivalent adults often worry that their partner
doesn't really love them or won't want to stay with them. Anxious /
ambivalent adults want to merge completely with another person, and
this desire sometimes scares people away.
Attachment appears to be weaker when babies are immediately separated
from the mother after birth vs. placed in direct skin to skin contact.
- Attachment creates positive emotional reactions in parents.
- Attachment increases the likelihood that the child will be cared
- Attachment increases the likelihood that the parents' genes will
Heart Sounds are Important - Infants hear mother's heart beat in utero.
- better maternal care of infants
- prolonged breast feeding
- improved infant weight gain
- decreased rate of infections. (in
Lockard, Daley & Gunderson (1979) Maternal and Paternal Differences
in Infant Carry: U.S. and African Data. The American Naturalist. Vol
VIDEOs - Beng of Ivory Coast
- Parents in different cultures carry infants on the Left side/hip
about 80% of the time - closer to the sound of the heart.
- A survey of over 400 art works from 4 cultures, which show mother
and infant have about 80% with mother carrying child on Left side.
- Recordings of heart beats at normal speed (72 bpm) soothed
babies, but at 125 bpm babies became upset and agitated.
- Newborns who are rocked at the rate of normal heart rhythm are
soothed more than those rocked faster or slower.
- Observations of over 2,000 babies in Dakar, Senegal wrapped to
mothers' backs in pagnes leaned their heads to the mothers' left.
- (all in Lockard, Daley & Gunderson
and Paternal Differences in Infant Carry: U.S. and African Data. The
American Naturalist. Vol 113, No.2)
- photos of babies in slings, looking left
are from The World Bank photo collection on Flickr, CC, link here.
BABY'S ATTACHMENT to PARENTS
Critical Period for Development of Attachment
|3 types of evidence that attachment has occurred:
- Baby attempts to maintain contact with the parent.
- Baby shows distress when parent is absent.
- Baby is more relaxed with the parent and more fretful with
- Baby's discomfort or tension in the presence of unfamiliar
- There is obvious functional survival value.
- Usually begins a few months after birth.
- Adults show greater wariness of strangers than do children.
- Baby's discomfort when the preferred person is absent.
- May involve attempts to re-connect with preferred person.
- Not usually observed until about 9 months after birth.
- Situational factors influence the degree of negative
- (home vs. away, (un)familiar surrogate caregiver, etc.)
- Over time, kids tolerate and look forward to longer periods
Study: Babies moved from Foster to Adoptive mothers.
Before 6 months of age, no distress, easy adaptation
if the needs were met.
After 8 months of age, strong negative reactions,
angry protest, withdrawal.
If there is a critical period, it begins after 6 months and
about 2 years.
Parents' Attachment to the Child
- Attachment is a two-way relationship.
- Few parents are willing to exchange their baby for another
- Shortly after labor, and during breast feeding, a woman's
body releases Oxytocin, a
produces a feeling of Social Pleasure. Oxytocin is also released during
- Naming a child reflects
the parents' connection -
as a person.
- Selecting and Giving a name is an important event in
creating the bond,
or attachment between Parents & Children.
- " 'The naming of children,' writes historian Daniel Scott
Smith, 'is culturally never a trivial act.' " (Hackett-Fischer,
(1989) Albion's Seed:
Four British Folkways in America.)
- There are many cultural effects of name selection:
- Immortality of the person through continuation of the
- Bless the child with the traits of the loved one
- Imbue the child with traits associated with the name
- Create religious connection
- Paul Revere named 3 of his sons
"John" before one of them lived long enough to carry it.
- The Necronym - Commonly practiced in Massachusetts
colony, the practice of giving the name of a baby who dies, to the next
born baby of the same sex. (Albion's Seed)
- George Foreman, the boxer, named all of his sons "George
- Essay on Celebrity Names,
like Moon Unit Zappa.
- Name Stories, some of which
have been stopped!
Boys & Girls with names popular among teachers scored better in
tests of skill & knowledge.
They also were rated higher on competence of essay writing.
Teachers expected these "normal" or "ideal" kids to do better, so they
granted them the extra or benefit of the doubt because, "they knew the
kids could do it."
Boys with "peculiar" names are more likely than girls to have
Images, courtesy of Flickr.com group: Simple baby
Attachment for Later Development
Securely attached kids as preschoolers show greater
Quality of Attachment has implications for the formation &
of Later Relationships.
For Example: Young lovers exhibit many of the behaviors of
Ability to Parent
- desire to maintain physical contact
- increased disclosure (blending of identities)
- increased responsiveness to loved one's needs
- effectiveness in providing/receiving comfort, reassurance and
- exclusiveness & preferential response as compared to others
Adults who had strong attachment as kids are more able to supply
for their own children.
|| Interesting Internet
League International - LLLI Philosophy
American Name Society
|Last Modified September 22, 2010