Ryan, and Beth
Kurtz-Costes. "Children's theories of intelligence: beliefs,
motivation in the elementary years.(Report). ." The
Journal of General Psychology. 134.3 (July
2007): 295(17). (Link
Kohn, A. "Beware
of the Standards, Not Just the Tests," September 26, 2001
- Intelligence - An organism's ability to learn and behave
- IQ - Intelligence Quotient - The score on an intelligence test.
- Ability - What one is capable of doing.
- Achievement - What one has done, an actual measurable
performance. All tests measure some achievement / performance on a
particular task at a particular time under particular circumstances.
- Reliability - consistent results in performing a measurement.
- Validity - the extent to which something actually measures what
We don't currently have a good grasp on exactly what intelligence
How shall we measure a thing, or a characteristic whose definition
we don't even really agree upon?
Basic idea of Intelligence Testing:
If we test on elements of the culture that all
have been equally exposed to, then the more intelligent will have
more of those elements.
This is good in theory, but has obvious flaws in
the notion that there is anything all people of a society are equally
TYPES of TESTS:
IQ - measure by comparing
mental age by chronological age
IQ = (MA/CA)100
Skills - measure ability to perform on
Two of my favorite quotes about Intelligence Testing:
This intelligence testing business reminds me of the way
they used to weigh hogs in Texas. They would get a long plank, put it
a cross-bar, and somehow tie the hog on one end of the plank. They'd
all around till they found a stone that would balance the weight of the
hog and they'd put that on the other end of the plank. Then they'd
the weight of the stone. (John Dewey (1859-1952) American
IQ STABILITY & PREDICTIVENESS
Intelligence tests are like weeds; they won't go away and you
improve them with cultivation. (anonymous)
- IQ shows some stability over years and predictability, but:
- IQ scores can fluctuate considerably. McCall et al. found the
between 2:6 to 17 years age to be 28.5 IQ points with 1 child in 7
at least 40 points! (Origins
of intelligence: infancy and early childhood. By Michael Lewis Google Books: Link
- IQ des not address motivation or interest.
- Testing does not generally make accommodation for learning
disabilities, language (such as non-native speakers), test and
- Test results can label a child and determine future educational
and occupational opportunities.
- Kids who are older in a class have a developmental advantage over
those who are younger in the class.
- IQ is moderately predictive of occupational success, but is not a
- prior job performance and motivation are often better predictors.
- Individuals with a high IQ tend to be well adjusted, but high IQ
guarantee good adjustment or success. Home environment plays an
- Many mildly and moderately retarded individuals (40 - 70 points
productive lives and experience fulfillment.
- IQ tests predict current and future grades moderately well.
what about grades? How valid are they as predictors? Researchers have
in fact had great difficulty demonstrating that grades in school are
related to any other behaviors of importance— other than doing well on
aptitude tests. Yet the general public—including many psychologists and
most college officials—simply has been unable to believe or accept this
for competence rather than for intelligence DC McClelland - American psychologist, 1973 - lichaoping.com pg. 2)
Some challenges to traditional IQ come from advocates of the Emotional
Quotient and from studies of multiple intelligences, such as Howard
Longview's Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Site
for competence rather than for intelligence DC McClelland - American psychologist,
1973 - This is a classic comment about issues and problems with
testing. Sadly, all of the issues in this (over 35 year old) article
are still relevant.
|Last Modified November 29, 2010